Best Bitcoin Point Of Sale Systems (2020) - Smart Bitcoin ...

Bitcoin - The Currency of the Internet

A community dedicated to Bitcoin, the currency of the Internet. Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. A large percentage of Bitcoin enthusiasts are libertarians, though people of all political philosophies are welcome.
[link]

Bitcoin XT - discussing Satoshi's Vision

A subreddit focused on providing open discussion on all things Bitcoin (BSV).
[link]

Bitcoin - The Internet of Money

/btc was created to foster and support free and open Bitcoin discussion about cryptocurrency, Bitcoin news, and exclusive AMA (Ask Me Anything) interviews from top Bitcoin and cryptocurrency leaders. Bitcoin is the currency of the Internet. A distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Unlike traditional currencies such as dollars, bitcoins are issued and managed without the need for any central authority whatsoever. Learn more about Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, cryptocurrency, and more.
[link]

The design of fiat system supports spending. The design of Bitcoin system supports saving.

And that is exactly what we need to transit from this current broken system that is based on a fairytale of never ending economic growth and resulting in consumerism. Here is the core cause of many of today’s problems including climate change. A learned compulsive spending that is encouraged by the fiat system. A Never ending material growth to compensate for our mental and emotional abandonment. Am not saying Bitcoin is a perfect technologically, but there is a great potential in the incentive structure of it. A potential that can change the mentality of people from reckless consumerism to conscientious spending of wealth.
submitted by blueprint80 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin System provides a Guide for trading in Bitcoin

This post was originally published on this siteThis post was originally published on this site Cryptocurrency is an exciting market for investors, and most people are familiar with this aspect. Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency, and it is getting huge popularity day by day. You can make use of Bitcoin to make payments or transfer money. Bitcoin can also be treated as […]
submitted by FuzzyOneAdmin to fuzzyone [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Audible: Guy's Take #32 - Rights, Incentives & the Bitcoin System

Bitcoin Audible: Guy's Take #32 - Rights, Incentives & the Bitcoin System submitted by BashCo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Audible: Guy's Take #32 - Rights, Incentives & the Bitcoin System (x-post from /r/Bitcoin)

Bitcoin Audible: Guy's Take #32 - Rights, Incentives & the Bitcoin System (x-post from /Bitcoin) submitted by ASICmachine to CryptoCurrencyClassic [link] [comments]

What is it Bitcoin System

What is it Bitcoin System


https://preview.redd.it/li03y7lm4go51.png?width=473&format=png&auto=webp&s=622c97da5ff9d92ee3ede4d92e19ea73d3a785f3

How will it work? Key Options. Will it have a mobile app?
Bitcoin System is an app that uses bots to exchange cryptocurrencies mechanically. Bots such as this one generally claim to be previous the marketplace, that provides them a bonus and allegedly the next likelihood of adulthood
They’re programmed based mostly on advanced algorithms which let them analyse the marketplace and money data at intervals fractions of minutes. They then automatically place the investments for users. A technology which cuts out error utterly is basically used by the programs. These promises are realistic, like others and conjointly most robots guarantee success rates of 90%, they're not.
That’s the reason precisely why we have a tendency to required to examine if it's really legit Bitcoin System to choose. From our history tests, Bitcoin System appears to be legit. As explained earlier, this bitcoin bot has online reviews. In addition, it appears to have made all the disclosures required by users to make informed selections.
Bitcoin System allegedly relies to scan the bitcoin markets and produce trading selections. These algorithms are powered with advanced trading technologies like machine learning and artificial intelligence. The high accuracy that's alleged of Bitcoin System is that it trades on margin. Despite the precision level that's alleged, could be a level of risk in trading with this bot. Do not deposit what you cannot afford to lose
How to Place a Trade With Bitcoin System? Can You Create Cash With Bitcoin System?
To utilize the Bitcoin Systemprogram, you’ll want to make an account.
Finally, insert your phone variety with the right country code and you’ll want to decide on your state of residence. After that, you’ll have the ability to maneuver on.
Currently that you have got a Bitcoin System account, you can strive trading.
You may have $1,500 on the market to trade at crypto along with your demo accounts. To do this, all you have to try to to is click on the”Go to Demo” button on the left side of this screen.

You’ll see 3 figures on the high: overall profit, total equilibrium, and winning transactions (the transactions that have led to gains ).
On the proper aspect of the”Open Trades” tab, there's a slide next to”Auto Trade.” To begin your demonstration transaction and it can turn on. Following a time amount, you’ll observe trades which have been conducted by this platform’s bots
Analyze the results and confirm whether or not this stage is worth your cash. Please note that algorithic cryptocurrency trading involves high risks.
If you have got found the conclusion which you wish to trade cryptocurrencies continue to exist Bitcoin System, then you may must initial deposit money
When you’re there, click the “Deposit” button, and also the web site’s directors can most likely reach out to you with directions on the best way to deposit cash in your account.
Search for his or her email and follow the directions to be ready to finance your Bitcoin System account. Robots such as Bitcoin System link to on-line brokers.
Depending on what agent you'll have completely different payment options out there to deposit your money. You're able to pay with debit and credit cards, some e-wallets along with Bitcoin.
Before that, you’ll need to choose your trading preferences. You’ll have to set up a daily stop reduction, the maximum profits you the amount of trades that you would like to provide daily and wish to create in a very day.

https://preview.redd.it/pykb85fq4go51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=6aa762f401ccf2b5f0e353a18fb26d35bc19dbe3
You’ll additionally would like to select your investment quantity for each trade. Following that, you may also opt for that cryptocurrencies you wish to trade with, based upon your own personal preferences.
You will notice a red circle stating”Away” on the ideal aspect of the display.
Click it to flip . You’re equipped.
All you would like to try to to currently is sit back and watch the robot transaction.
How will it work? Key Options. Will it have a mobile app?
Bitcoin Systemutilizes exactly the identical mechanism . These programs work as follows. You register to an agency, if it's applicable, you make sure your account. Following that, you wish to fund it with cash.
Not all services have specifically the same pricing models. For a few, at which you'll use the bots to trade twenty nine, you always need to pay a group fee each month to maintain your accounts. For others, you have to rent. There’s additionally a further pricing model that's fashionable with businesses that have issued tokens during a 1st Coin Offering (ICO).
For these services, maintain a bound amount to use bots and/or characteristics that are various on the stage, and you would like to induce the indigenous token of the service. You'll set the bots up if you’re ready to hide these fees. You do not would like to try and do a issue besides hoping and waiting your balance can increase once you're done.
Bitcoin System functions in partnership with many robot-brokers. These agents’ responsibilities include providing leverage, easing transactions and managing deposits. For the document, there is a robot not a bank and thus will not have the mandate of deposits. As stated earlier, Bitcoin System agents offer a leverage of around one:1000.
The Verdict! Is it scam? Is it legit?
We have a tendency to have provided the Bitcoin System that a score based mostly on performance, easy use and customer services. The robot is also transparent since it provides all the knowledge that users want to make an educated selection. Bitcoin System incorporates a great deal of great ratings on review net sites like Trustpilot. In the reviews we have a tendency to’ve come across this robot is claime dto be profitable and easy to use. No talent is needed to operate Bitcoin System provided that it's automobile
Though Bitcoin System features a alleged fertility, it is not risk-free. On a leverage of up to one:1000 which means that there’s a likelihood of undergoing losses outside of the 23, the robot trades. Among the disadvantages of Bitcoin System is that it does not have a negative equilibrium protection feature. This suggests that that users who don’t balance the danger are very presumably to blow their trading account.

https://preview.redd.it/m9h9j9ks4go51.jpg?width=474&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6a7dd58cc7f46c1eee8493162be0dbbe01fc2dcc
Before using this robot browse the risk management guides carefully. Build bound that you deposit exactly what you'll afford to lose. There are a full lot of dreadful stories concerning people who committed their retirement money into margin trading to lose everything. A deposit of $250 may be a smart beginning point with Bitcoin Systemllow the link, enter your details and make a deposit.
English Deutsch Français Italiano Româna Magyar Español Português Polski Eesti Hrvatski ???????? Slovencina Lietuviu Nederlands Ti?ng Vi?t ????????? Slovenšcina Latviešu ??? Cesky suomi Svenska Turkish Norsk Dansk
https://www.cryptoerapro.com/bitcoin-system/
http://www.cryptoerapro.com/
https://twitter.com/cryptoerapro
https://www.instagram.com/cryptoerapro/
https://www.pinterest.co.uk/cryptoerapro/
https://www.facebook.com/cryptoerapro
submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]

Bitcoin System Review - Is it Legit or a Scam? Read Here

Bitcoin System Review - Is it Legit or a Scam? Read Here submitted by harpermas to u/harpermas [link] [comments]

Bitcoin System – An In-Depth Guide for Bitcoin Investing

Bitcoin System – An In-Depth Guide for Bitcoin Investing
Bitcoin system
Would you imagine the Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are all set to increase very steeply back again? In 2010, since commencement, Bitcoin has been the very first electronic advantage to generate a whole network of cryptocurrencies. There came a time where it escalated an undercover after investors that looked very enthusiastic about its own future as a potential substitute for the physiological economic system, as conventional institutional members strangely saw its own development.
https://preview.redd.it/goxlmhxak7f51.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=06703e5119b12a9c986c2ab9a10ca230146c915d

While we’re still there is a possibility for a long time off from an entire transition, then the crypto distance was a reasonably explosive field. Throughout the rise and adoption of crypto, many individuals have started ICOs (Personal Coin Offerings, relative to providing brand new assets) with no omission or control. With that, Bitcoin directed the fee to an evaluation of approximately 20,000 dollars percentage in 2017, although it’s worth steadily decreased over the course from 2018 and remained at the assortment of 3,500 to 4,000 dollars for quite a while.

However, modern action has generated Bitcoin’s significance to rise and it has captured the interest of many existing and prospective investors.

Recently, for several years, the crypto marketplace has grown with more regulatory and oversight directions in position by both federations and state bureaus. More groups and individuals are currently seeking approaches and techniques to lessen their risk while securing a beneficial ROI as a consequence of those measures and much more institutional dollars encouraging the business. Except you were living beneath a stone for the last half a decade, you’re probably more than conscious of this happening of Bitcoin. However, what really is it and can it replace normal money as a way of trading?

https://preview.redd.it/u5gxsoubk7f51.jpg?width=1400&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5f0541365c2817b5dda1ae4d6ae04eb3f94b6835
Here we simply take a glance in Bitcoin and research its prospective future as an alternative to monies or being an investment medium or even both. We are also introducing the Bitcoin system and its features. We will discuss how well Bitcoin system can perform and why it is our best pick when it comes to online trading. This is a comprehensive Bitcoin system review and other trading know how
Bitcoin system Review
Bitcoin system is an online cryptocurrency trading platform. Bitcoin system is one of the leading and top performing trading system in the crypto market. Upon reading numerous Bitcoin system review, we really thought to make an actual testing in it. So from Bitcoin system’s website, to Bitcoin system registration and capital deposits, to Bitcoin system free demo trading, and to Bitcoin system live trading, we dig deeper in examining the whole process. And guess what? It is not that very complex, not at all! With that, we realized that this Bitcoin system platform can be accessed by individuals who are just learning and just starting their trading ventures in crypto market.

Bitcoin system has a simple interface, simple setting, understandable Bitcoin system demo trading. Bitcoin system does not charge any additional fee. Many Bitcoin system users have stated their reviews on the actual website. Bitcoin system fraud has never happened in the history of this platform, they have experts who are working every day to guarantee everyone’s safety and protection from online attacks.
Cryptocurrencies are like Bitcoin, they are electronic cash which is not endorsed by real resources or real securities. Cryptocurrencies are exchanged through both agreeing parties without an agent and monitored to digital records.

https://preview.redd.it/uqtury4gk7f51.jpg?width=770&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d00304c7501d9da277ad3ccd19f7ec3831213e3e
Individuals like you who are interested in cryptocurrency investment should execute a substantial quantity of research into what cryptocurrency you decided to put money into, exactly like every stock, up until buying.
Cryptocurrencies have become so popular, capturing even the attention of prominent people and also have generated a huge amount of money for a huge number of individuals. The latest boom of BTC or Bitcoin now usually implies that if you’d spent just 500 dollars from 8 years past, you’d be a multi-millionaire today. How interesting, right? People who took risks back then are now in the most amazing time of their lives. This swift increase in the vastest cryptocurrency through market cap has attracted a vast range of awareness. But to the regular person who’s accustomed to coping with income and actual price, cryptocurrencies can look to be an unfamiliar and a meaningless aspect. With respect to such as data mining, exchange capitalization, and the fear of uncertainty, there exists a tiny bit of an ill-natured learning hook for technology.

https://www.cryptoerapro.com/bitcoin-system/
submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]

Bitcoin system

Is this worth putting money in or is it a scam. Not got alot to put in prob minimum deposit, but still don't want to just give it some con artist
submitted by Foz3061 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The game should have a warehouse ore somewhere where you can store computers for your contracts and bitcoin mining because sometimes you have too many bitcoin systems to wtore in your room at once witch makes it very annoying to replace the GPUs

submitted by smash504 to PcCreatorGame [link] [comments]

Bitcoin system in times of crisis.

I'm pretty new to crypto but I've been recently thinking of the following situation.
Let's say that we live in a world where we've adopted Bitcoin as our stream of currency and we enter a recession such as this one. How can we provide liquidity to our system like the Fed does in times of crisis?
My concern is that a closed system such as Bitcoin would elongate recessions. Can anyone provide any insight?
submitted by thewitness1 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

6 5 minutes Theodore from bitcoin system vs Lenny. No account was activated through this call

6 5 minutes Theodore from bitcoin system vs Lenny. No account was activated through this call submitted by jasonmyblack to itslenny [link] [comments]

Bitcoin System Bewertung

Bitcoin System Bewertung
Bitcoin System Bewertung
Was ist Bitcoin?
Bitcoin ist eine neue Form des Geldes, die vollständig digital ist. Es kann von jedem verwendet werden, überall auf der Welt. Es gibt keine Dollars, Euros, Pesos oder Yen – es ist eine universelle Währung.

https://preview.redd.it/j25a5plou1251.png?width=624&format=png&auto=webp&s=ec4ec88e3029d07340cfcd51e6949fbe2204b076
Was ist Bitcoin-System? Wie funktioniert es?
Bitcoin wird nicht von Personen, Unternehmen oder Regierungen reguliert. Bitcoin wird von der Community seiner Nutzer betrieben. Das bedeutet, dass es keine zentrale Kontrolle gibt. bitcoin system preis Was beeindruckend ist, ist, dass keiner der Benutzer in der Bitcoin-Community sich kennen muss, bitcoin system bewertung damit dieses System funktioniert. Sie können Bitcoin online senden und empfangen, ohne sich mit der anderen Person treffen oder sogar vertrauen zu müssen. Aber im Gegensatz zu traditionellen Zahlungen, die Banken passieren, wird Bitcoin direkt von Person zu Person gesendet, anstatt von Person zu Unternehmen zu Person. bitcoin system preis Dies wird als Peer-to-Peer-System (P2P) bezeichnet.
Was ist Kryptowährung?
Eine Kryptowährung ist eine Währung, deren Transaktionen mit Kryptographie gesichert werden. Wenn Sie sich Ihre 2-Dollar-Note oder Ihre 1-Dollar-Münze genau ansehen, werden Sie die Worte "gesetzliches Zahlungsmittel" bemerken. bitcoin system bewertung Das bedeutet, dass diese Münzen oder Banknoten als Zahlung einer Schuld akzeptiert werden. Bitcoin hingegen wird von keinem Land unterstützt.
Sind Bitcoins unlimited?
Die Gesamtzahl der Bitcoins wird schließlich auf 21 Millionen im Jahr 2140 konvergieren. Zum Zeitpunkt des Schreibens sind 18.356.000 Bitcoins im Umlauf.
Wie wird der Bitcoin-Wert abgeleitet?
Zentralbanken regulieren Währungen auf der ganzen Welt, um ihre Währungen gesund zu halten. Wenn das Angebot die Nachfrage übertrifft, könnten die Regulierungsbehörden einspringen, um überschüssige Liquidität von den Märkten abzuwischen, um zu begrenzen, dass die Währung rasch an Wert verliert und umgekehrt. bitcoin system bewertung Diese Stabilität schafft Vertrauen in die Köpfe der Verbraucher und Unternehmen, die die Währung verwenden. bitcoin system preis Da es im Falle von Bitcoin keinen Regulator gibt, wird der Wert von Bitcoin vollständig den Marktenergien überlassen. Leider führt dies auch zu erheblichen Schwankungen des Wertes der Währung.
Wie wird Bitcoin gesendet und empfangen?
Bitcoin wird in digitalen Geldbörsen wie ein Bankkonto gespeichert. Jede Bitcoin-Wallet hat eine einzigartige Adresse, so dass Sie Geld an und von ihm senden können, die auf der Blockchain registriert sind. bitcoin system preis Eine Bitcoin-Adresse ist nur eine Folge von Zahlen und Buchstaben. Es ist die einzige Information, die zum Senden und Empfangen von Bitcoin erforderlich ist, sodass Ihre Identität nicht geteilt wird.
Vorteile der Verwendung von Bitcoins
Open Source: Niemand besitzt oder kontrolliert Bitcoin
Im Gegensatz zu Währungen, die von Regierungen kontrolliert werden, ist Bitcoin nicht im Besitz von niemandem. Es ist dezentralisiert und Benutzer im Bitcoin-Netzwerk überprüfen Transaktionen. Über 2 Milliarden Menschen weltweit können nicht einmal Zugang zu Bankkonten bekommen! bitcoin system bewertung Dies hindert sie daran, sich mit dem Rest der Welt zu verbinden. Bitcoin wird ihnen die Vorteile einer Bank geben, ohne eine Bank zu benötigen. Jeder mit Smartphone und Internetverbindung ist willkommen!

https://preview.redd.it/t4ngsflnu1251.png?width=624&format=png&auto=webp&s=5f849958b465c24f53a26986ef11173ea09825c0
Transparenz: Für die Strafverfolgungsbehörden wird ein Traum wahr
Bitcoin ist pseudonym, nicht anonym. Alle Bitcoin-Transaktionen werden in einem öffentlichen Ledger protokolliert, auf das jeder zugreifen kann. Beispielsweise blockchain.info jede Transaktion ausstrahlt; bitcoin system preis Dies ist transparent und Die Strafverfolgungsbehörden können die Transaktionen bis zu dem Tag verfolgen, an dem der Bitcoin abgebaut wurde, was den Strafverfolgungsbehörden bei der Verfolgung erheblich helfen kann.
Teilbar
Altmodisches Geld kann nur in Beträgen ausgegeben werden, die so klein wie ein Cent sind (also bis zu 2 Dezimalstellen). Bitcoin kann in viel kleineren Mengen ausgegeben werden, genannt Satoshis (bis zu 8 Dezimalstellen); dies bedeutet, dass es auch für kleine Einkäufe verwendet werden kann.
Ein praktisches Beispiel, bei dem Bitcoins hohe Teilbarkeit heute nützlich ist, ist für Mikrotransaktionen. Dabei handelt es sich um minimale Zahlungen, die für digitale Waren und Dienstleistungen verwendet werden. Stellen Sie sich zum Beispiel vor, Sie zahlen nur eine winzige Menge Bitcoin für jede Seite eines eBooks, das Sie lesen, anstatt für das ganze Buch zu bezahlen. Mikrotransaktionen sind etwas, was traditionelles Geld nicht tun kann, weil Cents nicht teilbar genug und daher zu groß für zierliche Einkäufe sind.
Sicherheit
bitcoin system preis Einfach ausgedrückt ist Kryptographie eine Technologie, die Informationen durch komplexe mathematische Funktionen schützt. Bitcoin verwendet starke Kryptographie, um Ihr Konto zu schützen und Sie können sicher Geld senden. Es ist so konzipiert, dass niemand Ihr Konto hacken kann, und es verhindert, dass die falsche Person Ihr Geld erhält.
Keine offengelegten personenbezogenen Daten: Keine Sicherheitskosten
Eine Bitcoin-Transaktion erfordert mindestens zwei eindeutige Adressen (man denke an diese als Bankkontonummern) – einen Zahlungsempfänger und einen Empfänger. Es werden keine persönlichen Daten wie Ihre Kreditkartendaten außer den digitalen Adressen offengelegt. Es besteht keine Anforderung, personenbezogene Daten zu speichern und anschließend teure Sicherheitssysteme zu installieren, um sie zu schützen.
Wie kann ich Bitcoins verwenden?
https://preview.redd.it/bzrlohqpu1251.png?width=797&format=png&auto=webp&s=db5d15cb1683ee3a71335de075a1eaa1fd6cacce
Die Liste der Händler, die Bitcoins akzeptieren, wird jeden Tag erweitert. Amazon, der größte Einzelhändler der Welt, ist vor kurzem auf den Zug aufgesprungen und hat begonnen, die virtuelle Währung als Zahlungsmittel zu akzeptieren. Andere bemerkenswerte Möglichkeiten, um Ihre Bitcoins im Cyberspace zu verbringen gehören WordPress und eGifter. Große Einzelhändler in den USA, wie GAP, Sears und JC Penny haben auch begonnen, Zahlungen in Bitcoins zu akzeptieren. Man kann auch Bitcoins im Austausch von Fiat-Währungen handeln, da es eine erhöhte Nachfrage nach Bitcoins auf der ganzen Welt wegen seiner Vorteile gibt.
Wie bekomme ich Bitcoins?
Es gibt zwei Möglichkeiten, Bitcoins anzuhäufen. Sie können sie abbauen, indem Sie Ihren Computer mit einem Netzwerk verbinden, ihn 24/7 ausführen und Computertechnologie der Lösung komplexer mathematischer Probleme widmen, oder Sie könnten Bitcoins mit tatsächlichem Geld kaufen.
submitted by legit-reviews to u/legit-reviews [link] [comments]

A Lucas Critique to the Difficulty Adjustment Algorithm of the Bitcoin System by Shunya Noda, Kyohei Okumura, Yoshinori Hashimoto :: SSRN

submitted by btcfork to btc [link] [comments]

"Meaning of Studying? Those who studied, understand and like Bitcoin System, are in BSV (only)"

submitted by cryptorebel to bitcoincashSV [link] [comments]

Satoshi Nakamoto writes to the CFTC to defend his 1997 bitcoin system and blast the bastard Ethereum, with all the technical competence and clarity that we have come to expect from him. [Check the attached PDF]

submitted by jstolfi to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Introduction and overview of the Bitcoin system

In relation to this post:
https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/eupegk/technical_review_of_the_past_10_years_and_how_the/
We put together an introductory overview of the Bitcoin System. As this is intended to help increase public understanding of BTC and thus increase it's adoption. What will you learn from the text:
If you do decide to go through the text would love some feedback. Was it clear? Did you get any value from it? Anything that needs to be expanded on? - we are really excited about this project and hope to make it to the best of our abilities.
----

1 Introduction to the Bitcoin System

1.1 Introduction and General Description

There are many definitions and descriptions of Bitcoin. Some describe it as an innovative virtual or crypto currency, some as the system for peer-to–peer electronic cash payment transactions, and some others as decentralized platform and infrastructure for anonymous payment transactions using any type of crypto currency.
In this Report we will adopt the concept that the Bitcoin system is a payment system. It has its own features, its own currency, its own protocols and components, and with all that Bitcoin supports payment transactions. In other words, the core function of the Bitcoin system is to support payments between two parties – the party that makes a payment and the party that receives the payment.
Based on the original concept and the description of the Bitcoin [Bitcoin, 2016], “it is a decentralized digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: transaction management and money issuance are carried out collectively by the network”.
The system is decentralized since its supporting platform blockchain, comprises an infrastructure of multiple distributed servers, mutually linked by an instantaneous broadcasting protocol. Users perform transactions within the open and distributed community of registered users. Digital currency used in the system is not electronic form of fiat currency, but a special form of the currency generated and used only within the Bitcoin system. This concept is based on the notion that money can be interpreted as any object, or any sort of record, that is accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context. Bitcoin system is designed around the idea of using cryptography to control the creation and transfer of money, rather than relying on central authorities.
There are several important requirements when making any type of payment and with any currency. The best example of a “perfect” payment transaction that meets all these requirements is payment using cash over-the-counter. When a consumer pays to a merchant using cash over-the-counter, such transaction satisfies all requirements and expectations of both parties. First, the transaction is instantaneous, as the paper bill is transferred hand-to-hand, from the consumer to the merchant. The transaction is cheap, in fact there is no overhead charge to perform transaction, so the merchant receives the full amount. The transaction is irreversible, what is the property beneficial to merchants. The transaction is legal, as the merchant can verify the legality of the paper bill. And, finally, the transaction is anonymous for the consumer as he/she does not need to reveal his/her identity.
The only “problem” with cash over-the-counter is the cash itself, as using and handling cash has many disadvantages.
Bitcoin concept and system solves all issues and problems with the use of cash, but at the same time provides all advantages when performing transactions using digital and communication technologies. So, paying with Bitcoins is effectively payment transaction that uses “digital cash over-the-counter”. The concept of the Bitcoin system provides all advantages and benefits mentioned above with payments using cash over-the-counter, but eliminates the problems of using cash. That is the reason why Bitcoins are often referred to as “digital cash”.
One of significant features of payments using cash over-the-counter is that there are no third parties to participate or assist in the execution and validation of a transaction. This feature makes Bitcoin transactions very efficient and also very cheap to perform. Other types of todays payment systems, for instance using bank-to-bank account transfers or using bankcards, use many additional intermediate parties and use very complicated background infrastructure to validate and clear payment transactions. These infrastructures are complex to establish and operate, they are expensive, and they are vulnerable to attacks and penetrations by hackers. Bitcoin does not use such complex infrastructures, what is the reason that its transactions are efficient and cheap. An additional problem with third-party transaction players is that transaction parties must put the complete trust in all these parties without any means to verify their functionality, correctness, or security.
Bitcoin system uses public-key cryptography to protect the currency and transactions. Logical relationships between transaction parties is direct, peer-to-peer, and the process of validating transactions is based on cryptographic proof-of-work. When performing a transaction, the net effect is that certain amount of Bitcoins is transferred from one cryptographic address to another. Each user may have and use several addresses simultaneously. Each payment transaction is broadcast to the network of distributed transaction processing servers. These servers collect individual transactions, package them into blocks, and send them for validation.
Each block is cryptographically processed by the large number of so called “miners”. They each attempt to create cryptographic hash value that has special form. This is computationally very difficult and time-consuming task, therefore, it is very difficult to perform and repeat. Individual blocks are validated using cryptographic processing procedures that require substantial amount of work and computing power.
Approximately an hour or two after submitting the transaction for validation, each transaction is locked in time and by cryptographic processing by the massive amount of computing power that was used to complete the block. When the block is validated, it is added to the chain of all previous blocks, thus forming a public archive of all blocks and transactions in the system.
One of the most important problems with uncontrolled digital currency, where there are no third parties to validate and approve transactions, is so called double spending. Since the currency is digital, stored at user’s local workstations, in mobile phones, or on network servers, it can be easily copied and sent to multiple recipients multiple times.
Bitcoin system solves this problem with a very interesting approach. It is the first effective example of the solution for the double-spending problem without the need for assistance of any third party. Bitcoin solves this problem by keeping and distributing an archive of all transactions among all the users of the system via a peer-to-peer distribution network. Every transaction that occurs in the Bitcoin system is recorded in that public and distributed transactions ledger. Since the components in that ledger are blocks with transactions and the blocks are “chained” in time and in a cryptographic sequence, the ledger in the Bitcoin system is called blockchain.
That full blockchain of all transactions that were performed in the Bitcoin system before the specific transaction can be used to verify new transactions. The transactions are verified against the blockchain to ensure that the same Bitcoins have not been previously spent. This approach eliminates the double-spending problem. The essence of the verification procedure for a single transaction in fact is the test of the balance of the sending account. The test is very normal and natural: payment of a certain amount of the currency can be made only of the balance of the outgoing account is equal or larger than the payment amount. Current balance of an account is established by tracing all incoming and outgoing transactions for that account.
The procedure to verify the validity of individual transactions and to prevent double-spending is based on the use of special type of cryptographic protocol called public-key cryptography. With this type of cryptographic systems each user has two cryptographic keys. They are mutually related in the sense that, what ever the one key encrypts, the other key can decrypt. One of the two keys is a private key that is kept secret, and the other key is public key that can be shared with all other users in the system. When a user wants to make a payment to another user, the sender transfers certain amount of Bitcoins from his/her account to the account of the receiver. This action is performed by the sender by creating a payment message, called a “transaction,” which contains recipient’s public key – receiving address and payment amount. The transaction is cryptographically processed by the sender’s private key, the operation called digital signing, and as the result digital signature is created and appended to the transaction.
By using sender’s private key every user in the system can verify that the transaction was indeed created by the indicated sender, as his/her private key can successfully decrypt the content of the digital signature. The exchange is authentic, since the transaction was also cryptographically processed with the recipient’s public key, the operation which is called digital enveloping. This transformation guarantees that the transaction can be accepted and processed only by the holder of the corresponding private key, which is the intended recipient.
Every transaction, and thus the transfer of ownership of the specified amount of Bitcoins, is inserted, then time-stamped, and finally displayed in one “block” of the blockchain. Public-key cryptography ensures that all computers in the network have a constantly updated and verified record of all transactions within the Bitcoin network, which prevents double-spending and fraud.

1.2 The Concept and Features of the Bitcoin System

There are many concepts and even more operational payment systems today in the world. Some are standard paper–based, some are digital and network based. What makes Bitcoin unique and distinctive, compared with all other payment systems that are in use today, are several of its core features.
The first of them is that the system uses its own currency. The reason for using its own currency is to make the system independent of financial institutions as trusted third parties. The unit of the currency is called Bitcoin. The currency is so called crypto currency, because it is generated and used based on execution of certain cryptographic algorithms and protocols. Performing specific cryptographic protocols is in the heart of operations to create new Bitcoins, to transfer them between transaction parties, and to validate the correctness of transactions.
Since appearance of Bitcoins, several new systems were introduced that use cryptography to manage its own currency, so all such currencies represent the category of crypto currencies. Later in this Report, some other digital / virtual currencies will be described that are created and managed using some other principles, so they are not called crypto currency. At the time of writing this Report, all such digital virtual currencies were called with general term tokens, sometimes also digital assets tokens. The reason is that they were created by the process called collateralization and therefore they are related to the value of some categories of real world assets which is expressed in digital tokens units.
The second interesting and important feature of the Bitcoin system is that the logical relationship between the two transaction parties is direct, peer-to–peer, i.e. there are no other parties that participate in the transaction. This is an important feature and benefit / advantage of the system that contributes to its efficiency when compared with the todays complex and expensive financial payment infrastructures and protocols. However, for distribution of transactions to their validators and later to all other members in the Bitcoin system the physical flow of each transaction is very complex and includes many parties.
It should be emphasized that performing transactions as direct, peer-to–peer transfers is one of the key features and the most significant reason for many benefits and advantages of the Bitcoin system. This approach is the key feature of the Bitcoin system as it enables security and anonymity of parties, efficiency in performing transactions, scaling of the system, and instantaneous settlement of payments. Therefore, supporting execution and validation of serious business peer–to–peer transactions is one of the core benefits of the blockchain concept, as it changes the current paradigm of Internet applications and transactions. Currently all Internet applications are organized and performed as client–server transactions. Such transactions are not efficient, do not provide sufficient privacy of participants, have dependencies on third parties and usually are vulnerable due to attacks of functional problems with large centralized application servers.
The next very important characteristic of the Bitcoin system is anonymity of users, their accounts, and transactions. This property means that the identities of the participants in the system are not known even to the partners performing a payment transaction. All other system operations – receiving payments, making payments, validating transactions, etc. are also performed anonymously. Interpreting this property correctly, the anonymity of transaction participants is so called pseudo-anonymity. Namely, in the process of validating transactions, all previous transactions of the sender are traced back to the original initial transaction. If that initial transaction was the purchase of Bitcoins at some Bitcoin Exchange, then the identity of the original owner of Bitcoins is known. Most if not all service providers in the Bitcoin system today require very strict identification of participants for the purpose of enforcing legal and regulated transactions and include certain restrictions of transaction frequency and amounts. This procedure, although understandable from the legal and regulatory point of view, has in fact in essence changed one of the core principles of the original concept of the Bitcoin system – full anonymity of users.
Better solution for fully anonymous payment transactions is so called zero–knowledge protocol, where the identity and authorization to perform Bitcoin transactions, is validated by anyone without revealing any identity information of the parties. The only problem with this approach is revealing the identity of transaction participants to law enforcement authorities in case of illegal transactions. But, such authorities have special authorization under the law and they should be enabled to get identifying information about transaction participants in the process of legal law enforcement procedures. But, all other service providers do not have such status, so if Bitcoin principles are strictly followed, they should not be able to have identifying information about system participants.
This approach and potential improvement of the Bitcoin system implies that the system needs one of the classical security services: role–based authorization. In such arrangement, there would be at least two categories of system participants: those that are authorized to maintain and access identifying information about the participants and those that are only authorized to perform transactions. In the first category are legal authorities, like police, driving license authorities, tax authorities, etc. In the context of the standard Identities Management Systems, such participants are called Identity Providers. All others are Identity Verifiers. Therefore, one of the main conclusions about true anonymity in the Bitcoin system is establishment of a sophisticated and multi-role Identities Management System, where some parties will be authorized Identity Providers and all others will be Identity Validators. Finally, referring back to the infrastructure of the Bitcoin system to perform and validate transactions – blockchain, the conclusion is that what is needed, as one of the most important extensions of the current concept of anonymity of Bitcoins participants, is an Identity Management System based itself on the use of blockchain and without Identity Providers as trusted third parties. Creation, distribution, use and validation of identities are transactions in the system, equivalent to payment transactions, so they should also be performed using blockchain protocol. Such system, that can provide reliable identities of all participants may be called Blockchain Identity Management System.
Another very important feature of the original concept of the Bitcoin system is that it is not controlled by any financial institution, by any regulatory body or by any legal financial authority when it comes to issuing Bitcoins and determining their value. This means that the currency used in the system and all transactions are exempted from any legal and financial rules and regulations. The rules controlling Bitcoin system are built in its code. This property is usually called “rule by the technical code”, as the rules of system operations, built in the code of its operational components, control and rule the operations of the system [UK, 2016], Chapter 3. This property is sometimes described as “control by the community”, i.e. the participating users.
This property implies that the value of Bitcoins is determined solely on the market – based on its supply and demand. This is quite natural approach, as the value of shares of companies are also determined on an open trading market. However, such approach implies that the value of Bitcoin, as crypto currency, is volatile related to fiat currencies. This property represent serious problem to perform payments using Bitcoin. It is well-known that volatile currencies are not suitable for payments. The practice of all the years while Bitcoins are in use has shown that its volatility represents one of the major obstacles for its main purpose – to be used as the payment system. In fact, it was announced that in 2019 the total value of Bitcoin transactions performed was about $ 11 T. However, unfortunately, only about 1.3% of those transactions were payments, all others were trading manipulations on exchanges. Based on that, it may be clearly stated that Bitcoin today is not used as the payment system, but as currency manipulation system. This is one of the main problems with the concept and current implementation and deployment of Bitcoin system and in near future may represent the main reason for its decline in popularity.

1.3 Innovative Contributions of the Bitcoin System

Besides an effective procedure to transfer an amount of crypto currency from one user (account) to another user (account), the major and indeed an essential contribution of the concept of the Bitcoin is the solution to the general problem how to establish trust between two mutually unknown and otherwise unrelated parties to such an extent and certainty that sensitive and secure transactions can be performed with full confidence over an open environment, such as Internet. In all current large scale and not only financial systems that problem is solved by using the assistance of third parties. For many (may be even all) current Internet applications and transactions those third parties are integrated and linked into a large, complex, expensive and vulnerable operational infrastructures. Examples of such infrastructures today are bankcard networks supporting global international payments, global international banking networks supporting international financial transfers, Public–Key Infrastructures (PKI), Identity Management Systems, and many others. It is a general consent that such infrastructures are expensive and, more important, vulnerable to external and internal attacks.
In addition to the complexity and vulnerabilities of such current operational supporting infrastructures, another requirement and prerequisite to use their services is that users must put the complete trust in these third parties. Accepting to trust those third–party service providers is the necessary and mandatory prerequisite to use their services.
Therefore, one of the most important contributions of the concept of Bitcoin is that it solves the issue how two parties, mutually unknown to each other in advance and otherwise completely unrelated, can perform sensitive and secure transactions, such as transfer of money – payments, but without assistance of any third party and without the need to place trust in any component of the system.
The practical benefits of solving this problem and the most important consequence of the solution for this problem – Bitcoin system, is that it provides the possibility for one Internet user to transfer not only Bitcoins, but also any other form of digital asset to or shared with another Internet user, such that the transfer is guaranteed to be safe and secure, that everyone knows that the transfer has been performed, and nobody can challenge the legitimacy of the transfer.
This feature of the Bitcoin system generated many very new, creative and innovative ideas where the concept equivalent to the Bitcoin can be used to perform secure and reliable transactions between users in an open community handling any type of digital asset ([Andreesen, 2014], [Sparkes, 2014], [UniCredit, 2016], [BitID, 2015], [PoE, 2015]). The examples of such applications and transactions range from commercial transitions, real estate transactions, energy trading, electronic voting, medical applications, and many others ([Kounelis, 2015], [Muftic, 2016]). The concept of blockchain as technology supporting validation of all such transactions is therefore called disruptive technology.
As the conclusion in this section, we may give a definition of blockchain:
Blockchain is an innovative concept, implemented as an infrastructure comprising multiple and distributed servers, mutually linked by special broadcasting and synchronization protocols, managing immutable objects with the purpose to enable and protect secure peer–to–peer transactions in a global and open environment.

1.4 Summary of Problems and Potential Solutions

In section 1.2 several problems of the Bitcoin system were mentioned and potential solutions for these problems were outlined. Recently, at the time of writing this Technical Report, several sources, mainly personal blogs and articles, appeared with very interesting opinions and statements regarding some other serious Bitcoin problems. Some of them are problems with the concept of the system, some problems of its design, and some problems of operations. In this section some of these problems are briefly summarized including suggestions for their potential solutions. The source of some problems was the article [Ein, 2018].
Problem 1: Complex Crypto Algorithms
Problem: Bitcoins is crypto currency and cryptographic algorithms used in the current version are very complex, based on the concept of proof–of–work, and require long time, special hardware and a lots of energy to perform
Potential Solution: Potential solution fro this problem is to use cryptographic algorithms that are simpler and therefore more efficient to execute and need less energy
Problems with Potential Solution: Lowering the complexity of crypto algorithms introduces vulnerability to hackers. Therefore, what is needed are strong algorithms and simple to perform for regular users and complex to break by hackers
Problem 2: Indirect Transactions, not Peer–to–Peer
Problem: Contrary to the concept claimed, in todays implementation Bitcoin payment transactions are not performed as direct, peer–to–peer transactions. They are performed indirectly, submitted to the Bitcoin network, and recipients receive them indirectly, by downloading validated transactions from the ledger
Potential Solution: Transactions should be performed directly, by transferring them directly between two users
Problems with Potential Solution: The problem with the potential solution is validation of transaction for proof of possession of Bitcoins by the sender and for prevention of double-spending. Therefore, what is needed is the protocol to validate peer–to–peer transactions.
Problem 3: Anonymity of Users not provided
Problem: Contrary to the concept claimed, in todays deployments of additional system components, mainly exchanges, users are not anonymous
Potential Solution: Blockchain–based Distributed Identity Management System with Role-based Authorizations
Problems with Potential Solution: The problem with potential solution is that it depends on trusted third parties with authorized roles. Therefore, what is needed is blockchain-based Identity Management System using hybrid (permissioned and unpermissioned) blockchain
Problem 4: Volatile Value, not suitable for Payments
Problem: Contrary to the concept claimed that Bitcoin is payment system, volatile value of the currency makes it inconvenient for payments
Potential Solution: Crypto currency with stable value
Problems with Potential Solution: The problem with the potential solution is that the value of Bitcoins is determined on the secondary market, during its trading (cash-in / cash-out). Therefore, what is needed is crypto currency that does not have volatile value
The remaining problems in this section are quoted from [Ein, 2018]:
Problem 5: Negative Environmental Impact
Problem: Mining algorithms and operational facilities (“mining farms”) consume too much electrical energy, based on the “proof-of-work” protocol
Potential Solution: Using mining algorithms that consume less energy, either as simpler / lighter crypto algorithms or using alternative crypto protocols to protect transactions integrity (“proof-of-stake”)
Problems with Potential Solution: The problem with the potential solution is that simpler / lighter algorithms open vulnerabilities to hackers while alternative crypto protocols are not backward compatible with the current system
Problem 6: Slow Performance (Delays) / Low Throughput
Problem: Due to blocking and the designed time for protection of transactions (10 minutes) Bitcoin system has very slow performance – transactions are validated in about an hour and transaction processing throughput is about 7 transactions per second
Potential Solution: Using transaction validation algorithms and protocols that do not need blocking of transactions, but transactions should be validated individually
Problems with Potential Solution: There are no serious problems with the proposed potential solution
Problem 7: Limited Number of Bitcoins
Problem: Due hardware and other types of failures, the number of available Bitcoins in the system is constantly reducing
Potential Solution: Potential solution could be to use smaller portions of Bitcoin (“Satoshi”) or introduce hard-fork by splitting the amount of available Bitcoins
Problems with Potential Solution: The problems with the first solution that it is not user-friendly and the problem with the second solution is backwards compatibility.
Problem 8: Real Value of Bitcoins
Problem: The value of Bitcoins is purely psychological and reflects only pure market speculations
Potential Solution: Potential solution could be to peg the value of Bitcoin to local fiat currencies in countries of deployments
Problems with Potential Solution: The problems with the potential solution is that such Bitcoins would be a new class of Bitcoins, not traded on exchanges and not volatile
At the end of this section, it is very interesting to quote two opinions about the future of Bitcoin and blockchain:
[Ein, 2018]: “It seems that Bitcoin will likely cease to have meaningful value*, defeating the whole point and philosophy imagined by Satoshi Nakamoto, the alleged inventor of Bitcoin. Its current value appears to be purely psychological, and the hype seems to be driven by irrational exuberance, greed and speculation. Modern human history has seen many* bubbles*, including the dot-com bubble, the housing bubble and even the tulip bubble. However, when these bubbles exploded, many excellent dot-com companies survived, most houses regained their value and tulips still have meaning and carry value in our lives today. But what will happen when the Bitcoin bubble bursts? What* utility or residual value will Bitcoin have to consumers and businesses? Most likely none*. And this is the real problem with Bitcoin and crypto currencies.*
Bitcoin will likely go down in history as a great technological invention that popularized blockchain yet failed due to its design limitations*. Just like the industrial revolution was fueled by the combustion engine, Nakamoto’s most valuable contribution is the* blockchain polymorphic engine that will further accelerate innovation in the post-information age and immensely affect our lives”.
This quote makes two very important and far–reaching predictions:
(1) Bitcoin, as the payment system will disappear (“. . . will go down in history”), and
(2) The most valuable contribution of the Bitcoin system is blockchain
This article was written in 2018. It is very interesting to notice that at the time of writing this Technical Report, (1) Bitcoin was still “alive” and (2) the concept and deployments of blockchain were in serious trouble.
Based on the principle of positive and creative approach, in the rest of this Technical Report, besides description of all technical details of the Bitcoin system, some potential solutions for its improvement will also be discussed.
However, contrary to the predicted status of Bitcoin, it seems that the predicted status of blockchain, in 2020 was still facing serious problems.
[Barber, 2019]: What's Blockchain Actually Good for, Anyway? For Now, Not Much
“Not long ago, blockchain technology was touted as a way to track tuna, bypass banks, and preserve property records. Reality has proved a much tougher challenge”.

[Lucanus, 2020]: Has Blockchain Failed Before It Even Really Began?

“Just as everyone was getting really excited about its potential, it appears blockchain is dead. For a technology that was supposed to transform and solve seemingly every problem in the world, the enthusiasm is fading pretty quickly”.
At the time of writing this Technical Report, there were many new blockchain – concepts, design and even several deployed and operational instances. Some of them are even very popular, but only among enthusiastic developers. The overall trends with real life deployments, and more and more comments about the capabilities and features of blockchains are appearing with negative connotation. Therefore, seems that even for blockchain some innovative concepts and approaches are needed. They are beyond the scope of this Technical Report and will be addressed in some of our follow-up reports.
submitted by Theus5 to btc [link] [comments]

Introduction and overview of the Bitcoin system

Based on this post I made a bit earlier:
https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinBeginners/comments/euozq4/blockchain_and_btc_technical_review_of_the_past/
We put together an introductory overview of the Bitcoin System. As this is intended for beginners I think this subreddit would be a good place to get some feedback. What will you learn from the text:
If you do decide to go through the text would love some feedback. Was it clear? Did you get any value from it? Anything that needs to be expanded on?
----

1 Introduction to the Bitcoin System

1.1 Introduction and General Description

There are many definitions and descriptions of Bitcoin. Some describe it as an innovative virtual or crypto currency, some as the system for peer-to–peer electronic cash payment transactions, and some others as decentralized platform and infrastructure for anonymous payment transactions using any type of crypto currency.
In this Report we will adopt the concept that the Bitcoin system is a payment system. It has its own features, its own currency, its own protocols and components, and with all that Bitcoin supports payment transactions. In other words, the core function of the Bitcoin system is to support payments between two parties – the party that makes a payment and the party that receives the payment.
Based on the original concept and the description of the Bitcoin [Bitcoin, 2016], “it is a decentralized digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: transaction management and money issuance are carried out collectively by the network”.
The system is decentralized since its supporting platform blockchain, comprises an infrastructure of multiple distributed servers, mutually linked by an instantaneous broadcasting protocol. Users perform transactions within the open and distributed community of registered users. Digital currency used in the system is not electronic form of fiat currency, but a special form of the currency generated and used only within the Bitcoin system. This concept is based on the notion that money can be interpreted as any object, or any sort of record, that is accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context. Bitcoin system is designed around the idea of using cryptography to control the creation and transfer of money, rather than relying on central authorities.
There are several important requirements when making any type of payment and with any currency. The best example of a “perfect” payment transaction that meets all these requirements is payment using cash over-the-counter. When a consumer pays to a merchant using cash over-the-counter, such transaction satisfies all requirements and expectations of both parties. First, the transaction is instantaneous, as the paper bill is transferred hand-to-hand, from the consumer to the merchant. The transaction is cheap, in fact there is no overhead charge to perform transaction, so the merchant receives the full amount. The transaction is irreversible, what is the property beneficial to merchants. The transaction is legal, as the merchant can verify the legality of the paper bill. And, finally, the transaction is anonymous for the consumer as he/she does not need to reveal his/her identity.
The only “problem” with cash over-the-counter is the cash itself, as using and handling cash has many disadvantages.
Bitcoin concept and system solves all issues and problems with the use of cash, but at the same time provides all advantages when performing transactions using digital and communication technologies. So, paying with Bitcoins is effectively payment transaction that uses “digital cash over-the-counter”. The concept of the Bitcoin system provides all advantages and benefits mentioned above with payments using cash over-the-counter, but eliminates the problems of using cash. That is the reason why Bitcoins are often referred to as “digital cash”.
One of significant features of payments using cash over-the-counter is that there are no third parties to participate or assist in the execution and validation of a transaction. This feature makes Bitcoin transactions very efficient and also very cheap to perform. Other types of todays payment systems, for instance using bank-to-bank account transfers or using bankcards, use many additional intermediate parties and use very complicated background infrastructure to validate and clear payment transactions. These infrastructures are complex to establish and operate, they are expensive, and they are vulnerable to attacks and penetrations by hackers. Bitcoin does not use such complex infrastructures, what is the reason that its transactions are efficient and cheap. An additional problem with third-party transaction players is that transaction parties must put the complete trust in all these parties without any means to verify their functionality, correctness, or security.
Bitcoin system uses public-key cryptography to protect the currency and transactions. Logical relationships between transaction parties is direct, peer-to-peer, and the process of validating transactions is based on cryptographic proof-of-work. When performing a transaction, the net effect is that certain amount of Bitcoins is transferred from one cryptographic address to another. Each user may have and use several addresses simultaneously. Each payment transaction is broadcast to the network of distributed transaction processing servers. These servers collect individual transactions, package them into blocks, and send them for validation.
Each block is cryptographically processed by the large number of so called “miners”. They each attempt to create cryptographic hash value that has special form. This is computationally very difficult and time-consuming task, therefore, it is very difficult to perform and repeat. Individual blocks are validated using cryptographic processing procedures that require substantial amount of work and computing power.
Approximately an hour or two after submitting the transaction for validation, each transaction is locked in time and by cryptographic processing by the massive amount of computing power that was used to complete the block. When the block is validated, it is added to the chain of all previous blocks, thus forming a public archive of all blocks and transactions in the system.
One of the most important problems with uncontrolled digital currency, where there are no third parties to validate and approve transactions, is so called double spending. Since the currency is digital, stored at user’s local workstations, in mobile phones, or on network servers, it can be easily copied and sent to multiple recipients multiple times.
Bitcoin system solves this problem with a very interesting approach. It is the first effective example of the solution for the double-spending problem without the need for assistance of any third party. Bitcoin solves this problem by keeping and distributing an archive of all transactions among all the users of the system via a peer-to-peer distribution network. Every transaction that occurs in the Bitcoin system is recorded in that public and distributed transactions ledger. Since the components in that ledger are blocks with transactions and the blocks are “chained” in time and in a cryptographic sequence, the ledger in the Bitcoin system is called blockchain.
That full blockchain of all transactions that were performed in the Bitcoin system before the specific transaction can be used to verify new transactions. The transactions are verified against the blockchain to ensure that the same Bitcoins have not been previously spent. This approach eliminates the double-spending problem. The essence of the verification procedure for a single transaction in fact is the test of the balance of the sending account. The test is very normal and natural: payment of a certain amount of the currency can be made only of the balance of the outgoing account is equal or larger than the payment amount. Current balance of an account is established by tracing all incoming and outgoing transactions for that account.
The procedure to verify the validity of individual transactions and to prevent double-spending is based on the use of special type of cryptographic protocol called public-key cryptography. With this type of cryptographic systems each user has two cryptographic keys. They are mutually related in the sense that, what ever the one key encrypts, the other key can decrypt. One of the two keys is a private key that is kept secret, and the other key is public key that can be shared with all other users in the system. When a user wants to make a payment to another user, the sender transfers certain amount of Bitcoins from his/her account to the account of the receiver. This action is performed by the sender by creating a payment message, called a “transaction,” which contains recipient’s public key – receiving address and payment amount. The transaction is cryptographically processed by the sender’s private key, the operation called digital signing, and as the result digital signature is created and appended to the transaction.
By using sender’s private key every user in the system can verify that the transaction was indeed created by the indicated sender, as his/her private key can successfully decrypt the content of the digital signature. The exchange is authentic, since the transaction was also cryptographically processed with the recipient’s public key, the operation which is called digital enveloping. This transformation guarantees that the transaction can be accepted and processed only by the holder of the corresponding private key, which is the intended recipient.
Every transaction, and thus the transfer of ownership of the specified amount of Bitcoins, is inserted, then time-stamped, and finally displayed in one “block” of the blockchain. Public-key cryptography ensures that all computers in the network have a constantly updated and verified record of all transactions within the Bitcoin network, which prevents double-spending and fraud.

1.2 The Concept and Features of the Bitcoin System

There are many concepts and even more operational payment systems today in the world. Some are standard paper–based, some are digital and network based. What makes Bitcoin unique and distinctive, compared with all other payment systems that are in use today, are several of its core features.
The first of them is that the system uses its own currency. The reason for using its own currency is to make the system independent of financial institutions as trusted third parties. The unit of the currency is called Bitcoin. The currency is so called crypto currency, because it is generated and used based on execution of certain cryptographic algorithms and protocols. Performing specific cryptographic protocols is in the heart of operations to create new Bitcoins, to transfer them between transaction parties, and to validate the correctness of transactions.
Since appearance of Bitcoins, several new systems were introduced that use cryptography to manage its own currency, so all such currencies represent the category of crypto currencies. Later in this Report, some other digital / virtual currencies will be described that are created and managed using some other principles, so they are not called crypto currency. At the time of writing this Report, all such digital virtual currencies were called with general term tokens, sometimes also digital assets tokens. The reason is that they were created by the process called collateralization and therefore they are related to the value of some categories of real world assets which is expressed in digital tokens units.
The second interesting and important feature of the Bitcoin system is that the logical relationship between the two transaction parties is direct, peer-to–peer, i.e. there are no other parties that participate in the transaction. This is an important feature and benefit / advantage of the system that contributes to its efficiency when compared with the todays complex and expensive financial payment infrastructures and protocols. However, for distribution of transactions to their validators and later to all other members in the Bitcoin system the physical flow of each transaction is very complex and includes many parties.
It should be emphasized that performing transactions as direct, peer-to–peer transfers is one of the key features and the most significant reason for many benefits and advantages of the Bitcoin system. This approach is the key feature of the Bitcoin system as it enables security and anonymity of parties, efficiency in performing transactions, scaling of the system, and instantaneous settlement of payments. Therefore, supporting execution and validation of serious business peer–to–peer transactions is one of the core benefits of the blockchain concept, as it changes the current paradigm of Internet applications and transactions. Currently all Internet applications are organized and performed as client–server transactions. Such transactions are not efficient, do not provide sufficient privacy of participants, have dependencies on third parties and usually are vulnerable due to attacks of functional problems with large centralized application servers.
The next very important characteristic of the Bitcoin system is anonymity of users, their accounts, and transactions. This property means that the identities of the participants in the system are not known even to the partners performing a payment transaction. All other system operations – receiving payments, making payments, validating transactions, etc. are also performed anonymously. Interpreting this property correctly, the anonymity of transaction participants is so called pseudo-anonymity. Namely, in the process of validating transactions, all previous transactions of the sender are traced back to the original initial transaction. If that initial transaction was the purchase of Bitcoins at some Bitcoin Exchange, then the identity of the original owner of Bitcoins is known. Most if not all service providers in the Bitcoin system today require very strict identification of participants for the purpose of enforcing legal and regulated transactions and include certain restrictions of transaction frequency and amounts. This procedure, although understandable from the legal and regulatory point of view, has in fact in essence changed one of the core principles of the original concept of the Bitcoin system – full anonymity of users.
Better solution for fully anonymous payment transactions is so called zero–knowledge protocol, where the identity and authorization to perform Bitcoin transactions, is validated by anyone without revealing any identity information of the parties. The only problem with this approach is revealing the identity of transaction participants to law enforcement authorities in case of illegal transactions. But, such authorities have special authorization under the law and they should be enabled to get identifying information about transaction participants in the process of legal law enforcement procedures. But, all other service providers do not have such status, so if Bitcoin principles are strictly followed, they should not be able to have identifying information about system participants.
This approach and potential improvement of the Bitcoin system implies that the system needs one of the classical security services: role–based authorization. In such arrangement, there would be at least two categories of system participants: those that are authorized to maintain and access identifying information about the participants and those that are only authorized to perform transactions. In the first category are legal authorities, like police, driving license authorities, tax authorities, etc. In the context of the standard Identities Management Systems, such participants are called Identity Providers. All others are Identity Verifiers. Therefore, one of the main conclusions about true anonymity in the Bitcoin system is establishment of a sophisticated and multi-role Identities Management System, where some parties will be authorized Identity Providers and all others will be Identity Validators. Finally, referring back to the infrastructure of the Bitcoin system to perform and validate transactions – blockchain, the conclusion is that what is needed, as one of the most important extensions of the current concept of anonymity of Bitcoins participants, is an Identity Management System based itself on the use of blockchain and without Identity Providers as trusted third parties. Creation, distribution, use and validation of identities are transactions in the system, equivalent to payment transactions, so they should also be performed using blockchain protocol. Such system, that can provide reliable identities of all participants may be called Blockchain Identity Management System.
Another very important feature of the original concept of the Bitcoin system is that it is not controlled by any financial institution, by any regulatory body or by any legal financial authority when it comes to issuing Bitcoins and determining their value. This means that the currency used in the system and all transactions are exempted from any legal and financial rules and regulations. The rules controlling Bitcoin system are built in its code. This property is usually called “rule by the technical code”, as the rules of system operations, built in the code of its operational components, control and rule the operations of the system [UK, 2016], Chapter 3. This property is sometimes described as “control by the community”, i.e. the participating users.
This property implies that the value of Bitcoins is determined solely on the market – based on its supply and demand. This is quite natural approach, as the value of shares of companies are also determined on an open trading market. However, such approach implies that the value of Bitcoin, as crypto currency, is volatile related to fiat currencies. This property represent serious problem to perform payments using Bitcoin. It is well-known that volatile currencies are not suitable for payments. The practice of all the years while Bitcoins are in use has shown that its volatility represents one of the major obstacles for its main purpose – to be used as the payment system. In fact, it was announced that in 2019 the total value of Bitcoin transactions performed was about $ 11 T. However, unfortunately, only about 1.3% of those transactions were payments, all others were trading manipulations on exchanges. Based on that, it may be clearly stated that Bitcoin today is not used as the payment system, but as currency manipulation system. This is one of the main problems with the concept and current implementation and deployment of Bitcoin system and in near future may represent the main reason for its decline in popularity.

1.3 Innovative Contributions of the Bitcoin System

Besides an effective procedure to transfer an amount of crypto currency from one user (account) to another user (account), the major and indeed an essential contribution of the concept of the Bitcoin is the solution to the general problem how to establish trust between two mutually unknown and otherwise unrelated parties to such an extent and certainty that sensitive and secure transactions can be performed with full confidence over an open environment, such as Internet. In all current large scale and not only financial systems that problem is solved by using the assistance of third parties. For many (may be even all) current Internet applications and transactions those third parties are integrated and linked into a large, complex, expensive and vulnerable operational infrastructures. Examples of such infrastructures today are bankcard networks supporting global international payments, global international banking networks supporting international financial transfers, Public–Key Infrastructures (PKI), Identity Management Systems, and many others. It is a general consent that such infrastructures are expensive and, more important, vulnerable to external and internal attacks.
In addition to the complexity and vulnerabilities of such current operational supporting infrastructures, another requirement and prerequisite to use their services is that users must put the complete trust in these third parties. Accepting to trust those third–party service providers is the necessary and mandatory prerequisite to use their services.
Therefore, one of the most important contributions of the concept of Bitcoin is that it solves the issue how two parties, mutually unknown to each other in advance and otherwise completely unrelated, can perform sensitive and secure transactions, such as transfer of money – payments, but without assistance of any third party and without the need to place trust in any component of the system.
The practical benefits of solving this problem and the most important consequence of the solution for this problem – Bitcoin system, is that it provides the possibility for one Internet user to transfer not only Bitcoins, but also any other form of digital asset to or shared with another Internet user, such that the transfer is guaranteed to be safe and secure, that everyone knows that the transfer has been performed, and nobody can challenge the legitimacy of the transfer.
This feature of the Bitcoin system generated many very new, creative and innovative ideas where the concept equivalent to the Bitcoin can be used to perform secure and reliable transactions between users in an open community handling any type of digital asset ([Andreesen, 2014], [Sparkes, 2014], [UniCredit, 2016], [BitID, 2015], [PoE, 2015]). The examples of such applications and transactions range from commercial transitions, real estate transactions, energy trading, electronic voting, medical applications, and many others ([Kounelis, 2015], [Muftic, 2016]). The concept of blockchain as technology supporting validation of all such transactions is therefore called disruptive technology.
As the conclusion in this section, we may give a definition of blockchain:
Blockchain is an innovative concept, implemented as an infrastructure comprising multiple and distributed servers, mutually linked by special broadcasting and synchronization protocols, managing immutable objects with the purpose to enable and protect secure peer–to–peer transactions in a global and open environment.

1.4 Summary of Problems and Potential Solutions

In section 1.2 several problems of the Bitcoin system were mentioned and potential solutions for these problems were outlined. Recently, at the time of writing this Technical Report, several sources, mainly personal blogs and articles, appeared with very interesting opinions and statements regarding some other serious Bitcoin problems. Some of them are problems with the concept of the system, some problems of its design, and some problems of operations. In this section some of these problems are briefly summarized including suggestions for their potential solutions. The source of some problems was the article [Ein, 2018].
Problem 1: Complex Crypto Algorithms
Problem: Bitcoins is crypto currency and cryptographic algorithms used in the current version are very complex, based on the concept of proof–of–work, and require long time, special hardware and a lots of energy to perform
Potential Solution: Potential solution fro this problem is to use cryptographic algorithms that are simpler and therefore more efficient to execute and need less energy
Problems with Potential Solution: Lowering the complexity of crypto algorithms introduces vulnerability to hackers. Therefore, what is needed are strong algorithms and simple to perform for regular users and complex to break by hackers
Problem 2: Indirect Transactions, not Peer–to–Peer
Problem: Contrary to the concept claimed, in todays implementation Bitcoin payment transactions are not performed as direct, peer–to–peer transactions. They are performed indirectly, submitted to the Bitcoin network, and recipients receive them indirectly, by downloading validated transactions from the ledger
Potential Solution: Transactions should be performed directly, by transferring them directly between two users
Problems with Potential Solution: The problem with the potential solution is validation of transaction for proof of possession of Bitcoins by the sender and for prevention of double-spending. Therefore, what is needed is the protocol to validate peer–to–peer transactions.
Problem 3: Anonymity of Users not provided
Problem: Contrary to the concept claimed, in todays deployments of additional system components, mainly exchanges, users are not anonymous
Potential Solution: Blockchain–based Distributed Identity Management System with Role-based Authorizations
Problems with Potential Solution: The problem with potential solution is that it depends on trusted third parties with authorized roles. Therefore, what is needed is blockchain-based Identity Management System using hybrid (permissioned and unpermissioned) blockchain
Problem 4: Volatile Value, not suitable for Payments
Problem: Contrary to the concept claimed that Bitcoin is payment system, volatile value of the currency makes it inconvenient for payments
Potential Solution: Crypto currency with stable value
Problems with Potential Solution: The problem with the potential solution is that the value of Bitcoins is determined on the secondary market, during its trading (cash-in / cash-out). Therefore, what is needed is crypto currency that does not have volatile value
The remaining problems in this section are quoted from [Ein, 2018]:
Problem 5: Negative Environmental Impact
Problem: Mining algorithms and operational facilities (“mining farms”) consume too much electrical energy, based on the “proof-of-work” protocol
Potential Solution: Using mining algorithms that consume less energy, either as simpler / lighter crypto algorithms or using alternative crypto protocols to protect transactions integrity (“proof-of-stake”)
Problems with Potential Solution: The problem with the potential solution is that simpler / lighter algorithms open vulnerabilities to hackers while alternative crypto protocols are not backward compatible with the current system
Problem 6: Slow Performance (Delays) / Low Throughput
Problem: Due to blocking and the designed time for protection of transactions (10 minutes) Bitcoin system has very slow performance – transactions are validated in about an hour and transaction processing throughput is about 7 transactions per second
Potential Solution: Using transaction validation algorithms and protocols that do not need blocking of transactions, but transactions should be validated individually
Problems with Potential Solution: There are no serious problems with the proposed potential solution
Problem 7: Limited Number of Bitcoins
Problem: Due hardware and other types of failures, the number of available Bitcoins in the system is constantly reducing
Potential Solution: Potential solution could be to use smaller portions of Bitcoin (“Satoshi”) or introduce hard-fork by splitting the amount of available Bitcoins
Problems with Potential Solution: The problems with the first solution that it is not user-friendly and the problem with the second solution is backwards compatibility.
Problem 8: Real Value of Bitcoins
Problem: The value of Bitcoins is purely psychological and reflects only pure market speculations
Potential Solution: Potential solution could be to peg the value of Bitcoin to local fiat currencies in countries of deployments
Problems with Potential Solution: The problems with the potential solution is that such Bitcoins would be a new class of Bitcoins, not traded on exchanges and not volatile
At the end of this section, it is very interesting to quote two opinions about the future of Bitcoin and blockchain:
[Ein, 2018]: “It seems that Bitcoin will likely cease to have meaningful value, defeating the whole point and philosophy imagined by Satoshi Nakamoto, the alleged inventor of Bitcoin. Its current value appears to be purely psychological, and the hype seems to be driven by irrational exuberance, greed and speculation. Modern human history has seen many bubbles, including the dot-com bubble, the housing bubble and even the tulip bubble. However, when these bubbles exploded, many excellent dot-com companies survived, most houses regained their value and tulips still have meaning and carry value in our lives today. But what will happen when the Bitcoin bubble bursts? What utility or residual value will Bitcoin have to consumers and businesses? Most likely none. And this is the real problem with Bitcoin and crypto currencies.
Bitcoin will likely go down in history as a great technological invention that popularized blockchain yet failed due to its design limitations. Just like the industrial revolution was fueled by the combustion engine, Nakamoto’s most valuable contribution is the blockchain polymorphic engine that will further accelerate innovation in the post-information age and immensely affect our lives”.
This quote makes two very important and far–reaching predictions:
(1) Bitcoin, as the payment system will disappear (“. . . will go down in history”), and
(2) The most valuable contribution of the Bitcoin system is blockchain
This article was written in 2018. It is very interesting to notice that at the time of writing this Technical Report, (1) Bitcoin was still “alive” and (2) the concept and deployments of blockchain were in serious trouble.
Based on the principle of positive and creative approach, in the rest of this Technical Report, besides description of all technical details of the Bitcoin system, some potential solutions for its improvement will also be discussed.
However, contrary to the predicted status of Bitcoin, it seems that the predicted status of blockchain, in 2020 was still facing serious problems.
[Barber, 2019]: What's Blockchain Actually Good for, Anyway? For Now, Not Much
“Not long ago, blockchain technology was touted as a way to track tuna, bypass banks, and preserve property records. Reality has proved a much tougher challenge”.

[Lucanus, 2020]: Has Blockchain Failed Before It Even Really Began?

“Just as everyone was getting really excited about its potential, it appears blockchain is dead. For a technology that was supposed to transform and solve seemingly every problem in the world, the enthusiasm is fading pretty quickly”.
At the time of writing this Technical Report, there were many new blockchain – concepts, design and even several deployed and operational instances. Some of them are even very popular, but only among enthusiastic developers. The overall trends with real life deployments, and more and more comments about the capabilities and features of blockchains are appearing with negative connotation. Therefore, seems that even for blockchain some innovative concepts and approaches are needed. They are beyond the scope of this Technical Report and will be addressed in some of our follow-up reports.
submitted by Theus5 to u/Theus5 [link] [comments]

Remember that BTC-Core supporters have *never* shown any actual facts to support their re-design of the bitcoin system. Things the BTC-Core devs did on purpose such as: full blocks, high fees, long waits have never been given supporting evidence.

submitted by utopiawesome to btc [link] [comments]

TIL the inventor of the bitcoin system is of unknown identity. He has never revealed his real name and no one has ever seen him. As of 2017, he owns $2 billion USD in bitcoin.

TIL the inventor of the bitcoin system is of unknown identity. He has never revealed his real name and no one has ever seen him. As of 2017, he owns $2 billion USD in bitcoin. submitted by DioriteLover to todayilearned [link] [comments]

Hold On To Your Private Keys! If you don't the Bitcoin system might be in real danger. Watch why.

Hold On To Your Private Keys! If you don't the Bitcoin system might be in real danger. Watch why. submitted by phileo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

What prevents a malicious actor from flooding the bitcoin system with a billion transactions in a short period of time priced at one satoshi per byte?

submitted by N0tMyRealAcct to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A Lucas Critique to the Difficulty Adjustment Algorithm of the Bitcoin System by Shunya Noda, Kyohei Okumura, Yoshinori Hashimoto :: SSRN

submitted by libertarian0x0 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin System Review ! Legit or Scam? [FULL TUTORIAL 2020] Bitcoin System SCAM or LEGIT This Bitcoin System Review ... Bitcoin System ⛔️¡ALERTA ESTAFA!⛔️Opiniones reales What is Bitcoin? (v1) - YouTube BitCoin System - YouTube

Bitcoin Systems algorithm seems to work, at least. But here too the risk remains that the program will generate losses. The lower the expectations, the less you can be disappointed. And the more carefully you start and the smaller the amount invested, the less you can lose. Getting started with Bitcoin System: Would you like to test the crypto trader yourself? The registration to Bitcoin ... Bitcoin isn’t going away; this crypto is still so popular, and it’s the oldest of cryptocurrencies. You haven’t lost out on the opportunity to trade. With Bitcoin System, the possibilities are endless. If you want to trade online and don’t have experience, this software can help. Even if you do have years of trading under your belt, it’s much easier with Bitcoin System. Unser Bitcoin Chart zeigt Ihnen den aktuellen Bitcoin Kurs in Euro (Kürzel: ... Die Macher eines Trading-Systems seien in der Höhle der Löwen gewesen und hätten Carsten Maschmayer und Co derart begeistert, dass sie aus dem Stand mehrere Millionen investiert haben. Das System hat ständig wechselnde Namen, Bitcoin Revolution, Bitcoin Profit, Bitcoin Billionaire, Bitcoin Superstart und ... Die Meinungen des Bitcoin-Systems sind auch günstig für die Benutzerfreundlichkeit und den angebotenen Kundensupport. Diese Software ist vollautomatisch, was bedeutet, dass auch Anfänger sie verwenden können, da keine detaillierten Finanzkenntnisse erforderlich sind. Aus diesem Grund scheint es sowohl bei erfahrenen als auch bei weniger professionellen Händlern große Beliebtheit zu ... These systems work as follows. You register to a service, if it is applicable, you verify your Bitcoin account. After that, you need to fund it with money. Not all services have the same pricing ...

[index] [47365] [15962] [21370] [43363] [4584] [27903] [12696] [25751] [219] [49526]

Bitcoin System Review ! Legit or Scam? [FULL TUTORIAL 2020]

Check out Bitcoin Aussie System Demo for Free https://tny.sh/bitcoin-system-en Bitcoin Aussie System Review. Is Bitcoin Aussie System scam or legit? We ha... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Bitcoin System SCAM or LEGIT? Watch this Bitcoin System App Review 2020 to Find out now! Watch this Bitcoin System App Review 2020 to Find out now! - Duration: 3:20. Bitcoin System Login: http://bit.ly/bitcoin_system Welcome to this Bitcoin System review, we’ll be going through the platform and letting you guys know whe... Bitcoin System Review 2020. Is Bitcoin System scam or legit app? Bitcoin System is one of the best and profitable trading app we have recently reviewed. Clic...

#